Gershon Ben-Shakhar ( is a Professor emeritus of Psychology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. His main area of research is Cognitive Psychophysiology and he has published more than 100 articles and book chapters mostly focusing on the role of stimulus novelty and significance in orienting response elicitation and its habituation process, and on psychophysiological detection of deception. His research on psychophysiological detection has dealt with applied issues as well as with attempts to understand the mechanism underlying differential responding to the significant information in the “Guilty Knowledge” (or “concealed information”) paradigm. His previous ISF grant (in collaboration with Prof. Asher Cohen) focused on visual attention and orienting responses. This project dealt with attentional selection processes in focused and divided visual attention tasks. Specifically, it examined the conditions under which stimuli outside the main focus of attention interfere with task performance and elicit orienting responses. His current ISF grant deals with the concealed information test (CIT) and particularly with the role of memory and emotional arousal in detection efficiency and in the use of the CIT for the detection of mal-intentions and for detecting critical items unknown to the investigators (the searching CIT or SCIT) from individuals and groups. He has also published articles on psychological testing, individual differences in cognitive ability and human judgment and decision making. In the past he served in several academic administration roles, as the Chairman of the Psychology Department at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU), as the Dean of the Social Sciences Faculty at the HU, as the Pro Rector of the HU and as the President of the Open University of Israel.

Geert Crombez is a Professor of Health Psychology at the Psychology Department of Ghent University (Belgium). He is head of the department “Experimental-Clinical and Health Psychology”. He has published more than 150 internationally peer-reviewed articles, chapters and books. His contributions have been recognized by early career awards and he has received various research grants. He is member of the editorial board of various journals (including ‘Pain’ and ‘Psychology & Health’), and active reviewer for several journals (including ‘Behavioral and Brain Sciences’, ‘Biological Psychology’, ‘Journal of Abnormal Psychology’, and ‘Psychophysiology’), and organisations (including ‘The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research’, and the UK ‘Economic & Social Research Council’). He is actively involved in experimental and applied research related to clinical psychology (anxiety and phobia), health psychology (pain) and forensic psychology (psychopathy & lie detection). His focus in these domains concerns learning, emotion, attention and self-regulation. He has successfully promoted 9 completed PhD’s in these domains. He has been involved in lie detection since he was appointed by court as a member of the scientific committee to evaluate the validity and the use of the polygraph in 1991.

Matthias Gamer is currently a Research Group Leader at the Department of Systems Neuroscience at the University Medical Center in Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. His research is mainly devoted to forensic psychophysiology and he is especially interested in the combined measurement and analysis of parameters related to the central (EEG, fMRI) and the autonomic nervous system (SCR, Respiration, Heart Rate, etc.) during deception and information concealment. Such research is highly relevant for the identification of psychological processes that are involved in generating the physiological response pattern that is typically found in the field of forensic psychophysiology. Moreover, such a combination of multiple measures might be capable of enhancing the validity of currently applied questioning techniques. Please see for further information and publications.

Giorgio Ganis is currently a Reader in Cognitive Neuroscience at the School of Psychology at the University of Plymouth (UK) and maintains his affiliation with the Harvard Medical School (HMS) and the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). He obtained his Ph.D. in Cognitive Science at the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) before becoming a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University and then joining the faculty at the HMS and MGH. His research interests include the neural basis of cognitive control processes in social and visual cognition, with an emphasis on deception production and perception processes. For nearly two decades, he has been pursuing these interests using the tools of psychology and cognitive neuroscience (behaviour, ERPs, TMS, fMRI, NIRS). In addition to basic research interests, he is also keen on developing potential applications of cognitive neuroscience methods to education, human factors, and forensic problems, in synergy with novel or existing behavioural paradigms. His empirical findings and ideas have been published in more than 50 peer-reviewed articles (including Science and Nature Reviews Neuroscience) and book chapters, and a co-authored book on the neuroscience of visual mental imagery. He is a reviewer for over 25 scientific journals and a member of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, the Society for Neuroscience, and the Psychonomic Society. He has been PI or co-PI on grants from the McDonnell-Pew Foundation, the National Science Foundation, The National Institute of Health, The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, The Central Intelligence Agency, and The US AirForce, for a total of over $2.5 million. He is an associate editor of Social Neuroscience, founded in 2006, the first scientific journal specializing in publishing neuroscience work on social cognition. For more information and list of publications, please see:

Pär Anders Granhag is a Professor of Psychology at Gothenburg University (Sweden), and head of the research unit for Criminal, Legal and Investigative Psychology (CLIP, He has published 150 articles and book chapters, on topics such as deception detection, investigative psychology, investigative interviewing, eyewitness testimony and legal decision making. He has, together with colleagues, developed the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) technique, which can be used enhance deception detection accuracy when interrogating suspects. In 2004 he co-edited the book The Detection of Deception in Forensic Contexts (Cambridge University Press), which provides a state-of-the-art account of current research and practice, written by a team of world-leading experts. He has over 10 years of experience training legal practitioners, such as police officers, judges, prosecutors, custom officers and intelligence officers in assessing reliability and lie detection techniques. He is on the editorial board of six scientific journals, and held grants from The Swedish Research Council, The Swedish Crime Victim and Support Authority, The Joint Committee for Nordic Research Councils for the Humanities and the Social Sciences, and The Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Research. For a full list of publications, see

Nurit Gronau is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Psychol-ogy at the Open University of Israel. She has conducted several studies, with Prof. Gershon Ben-Shakhar, on the efficiency and validity of polygraph assessment of guilty knowledge. Dr. Gronau examined the efficiency of behavioral measures such as reaction times in the assessment of concealed information, along with their incremental contribution to psychophysiological measures (e.g., skin conductance responses) typically used in polygraph investigations. Dr. Gronau also conducts cognitive research in the field of visual attention and visual recognition, using both behavioral and neuroimaging measures. See for more information including a full list of publications.

Sharon Leal is a postdoctoral fellow for the International Centre for Research in Forensic Psychology, University of Portsmouth (UK). Her doctoral research focused on the central and peripheral physiology of attention and cognitive demand. Her current research focuses on the behavioural and physiological effects of cognitive load during deception. This research is very relevant for detecting how people engaging in ‘high stake’ deception respond verbally, non-verbally and physiologically. Her work involves cooperation with national and international governments and police. See,50515,en.html for more information and publications.

Ewout Meijer is an assisant professor at the Faculty of Psychology and Neurosciences, Maastricht University and a research fellow at the Hebrew University. He received his PhD in 2008 on his dissertation entitled ‘Psychophysiology and the detection of deception: Promises and perils’. His research has focused on the use of both psychophysiological and behavioral measures in the detection of deception. His current research is funded by grants from the The Dutch Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), and the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations. For more information on his work, please see

Harald Merckelbach is a full professor of psychology and the former dean of the Faculty of Psychology and Neurosciences, MaastrichtUniversity. He is the author of many papers and book chapters, but also writes a monthly science column for a Dutch newspaper. He is a member of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen (KNAW). He served on the public advisory committee on sexual abuse crimes in the Roman Catholic Church. Apart from lie detection, his major research interests are memory aberrations and how they bear relevance to the domains of psychopathology (e.g., PTSD) and law (e.g., offenders who claim dissociative amnesia). He sometimes acts as an expert witness in court cases that require expert opinions on malingering, confessions, PTSD, schizophrenia, memory loss, and/or recovered memories. Please see for further information and publications.

Fren Smulders is an assistant professor at the Faculty of Psychology and Neurosciences, Maastricht University. He has published on a variety of topics, including mental chronometry, cognitive energetics, (emotion &) Selective attention, implicit cognition & indirect measures, and individual differences & personality. His interests in lie detection focus on the use of both behavioral measures and psychophysiology and the detection of concealed information.

Bruno Verschuere is an Associate Professor of Forensic Psychology at the University of Amsterdam (The Netherlands), and a research fellow at Ghent University (Belgium) and Maastricht University (The Netherlands). His research focuses on the psychology of deception, and the mechanisms involved in the detection of deception and concealed information. His research has been published in high impact journals such as Psychological Science, Psychophysiology and Biological Psychology. In 2011, together with Gershon Ben-Shakhar and Ewout Meijer, he has edited the first book devoted entirely to the detection of concealed information (“Memory Detection: Theory and application of the concealed information test”, Cambridge University Press).

Gerhard Vossel is a Professor of Experimental and Biological Psychology at the Department of Psychology of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz and Head of the Interdisciplinary Research Group Forensic Psychophysiology. His research focuses on human orienting response and habituation, the psychophysiology of attention and vigilance as well as the psychophysiology of interindividual differences. During the last years he systematically investigated processes involved in the detection of concealed information, relying primarily on the Guilty KnowledgeTest. This research concentrated on the role of memory processes and on the influences of emotional factors. Recent research is also concerned with the combined measurement and analysis of parameters of the central (EEG, fMRI) and the autonomous nervous system (SCR, Respiration, Heart Rate, etc.) in the psychophysiological detection of information. Please see for further information and publications.

Aldert Vrij is a Professor of Applied Social Psychology in the Department of Psychology at the University of Portsmouth (UK), and the contact person for E-PRODD. He has published around 400 articles and book chapters to date, mainly on the subjects of nonverbal and verbal cues to deception (i.e., how do liars behave and what do they say), and lie detection. He has developed a cognitive approach to lie detection, and published overview (invited) articles about it in Psychological Science in the Public Interest in 2010 and Current Directions in Psychological Science in 2011. His book Detecting Lies and Deceit: Pitfalls and Opportunities, published by Wiley in 2008, provides a comprehensive overview of deception and lie detection research. He advises the police about conducting interviews with suspects, and gives invited talks and workshops on lie detection to practitioners and scholars across the world, including police, homeland security, defense, judges, solicitors, social workers, fraud investigators, insurers and bankers. He has held research grants from The British Academy, The Dutch Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), The Dutch Government, The Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), The Engineering and Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC), Federal Bureau of Investigation, The Leverhulme Trust, the Nuffield Foundation, the UK Government and the US Government, totalling £2.3 million. He serves on the Editor Boards of  14 journals. See for further details:,50475,en.html

Student members

Glynis Bogaard (Maastricht University)
Project title: “Verbal veracity assessment tools”
Supervisors: Ewout Meijer, Harald Merckelbach, & Aldert Vrij

Franziska Clemens (University of Gothenburg)
Project title “Optimising the detection or criminal intent and deception
among criminal networks”
Superviors:  Pär Anders Granhag

Melanie Knieps (University of Gothenburg)
Project title “False intent and Episodic Future Thought”
Supervisors:  Pär Anders Granhag & Aldert Vrij

Johann Kim (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf)
Project title “Emotional modulation of memory encoding and retrieval”
Supervisor: Matthias Gamer

Judith Peth (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf)
Project title “Testing the Concealed Information Test under realistic conditions”
Supervisor: Matthias Gamer

Dominic Shaw (University of Portsmouth)
Project title: ‘The effect of using a second interviewer on eliciting cues to deceit’
Supervisors: Aldert Vrij & Pär Anders Granhag

Kristina Suchotzki (Ghent University)
Project title: “Optimizing the detection of criminal intent and deception in criminal networks: The role of response inhibition”
Supervisors: Geert Crombez & Bruno Verschure

Tuule Sooniste (University of Gothenburg)
Project title “Discriminating between true and false intentions”
Supervisors:  Pär Anders Granhag & Aldert Vrij

Lara Warmelink (University of Portsmouth)
Project title: “Lying about intentions”
Supervisors: Aldert Vrij & Pär Anders Granhag

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